Penetration testing, also known as pen testing, is a type of security assessment that simulates a cyber attack on a computer system, network, or web application to test its defenses and identify vulnerabilities. The goal of penetration testing is to identify weaknesses in a system's security posture that an attacker could exploit, and to provide recommendations for improving the system's security.
Penetration testing can be performed in a number of different ways, depending on the scope and objectives of the test. Some common methods include trying to gain unauthorized access to a system through a weakness in the system's configuration, attempting to exploit vulnerabilities in software or hardware, and attempting to gain access to sensitive data through social engineering techniques. Many organizations hire cyber security companies to perform penetration testing on their systems to ensure that they are adequately protected against potential threats.